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F.A.Q. About Biogreen®

Frequently Asked Questions

What is carbonization, pyrolysis and gasification?
Pyrolysis is a thermal treatment without oxygen which occurs in a temperature range between 300°C and 800°C. A Chemical conversion occurs at this temperature and products like biomass, plastic, or rubber and the molecules are transformed into a solid, liquid or gas phase. Liquid phase is always obtained by condensation of the gas pyrolysis immediately after the pyrolyzer. The ratio of solid, liquid and gas phase depends upon the feedstock and operating parameters such as heat velocity, dwell time, and temperature. Carbonization occurs between 250 and 300°C and is usually meant to convert biomass into biocoal to be used as a solid fuel. Gasification occurs at a higher temperature (> 700°C) and will convert most of the feedstock into syngas which can be valorized into heat after combustion or electricity when the gas is injected into a gas engine or a turbine.
What is Biogreen?
Biogreen is an innovative and worldwide patented continuous thermal treatment which can be used as carbonizer, pyrolyzer or gasifier. It can convert any kind of waste such as biomass (forest or crop residue), plastic (from MSW or industry), rubber (used tires) sewageor industrial sludge into a new product and or energy.
When Biogreen was first developed?
Biogreen was first developed in 2001. The first plant was a pyrolysis plant for converting wood (sawdust) into Biooil and Biochar.
What is the capacity of Biogreen?
A wide range of Biogreen is available. The capacities vary from the bench type (30 l/h) to industrial plant with a capacity of up to 7,5 m3/h. The capacity will depend upon the bulk density and dwell time. The dwell time is the time of treatment needed to pyrolyze the biomass or the waste and to convert it into solid, liquid or gas. Usually the dwell time is between 5mn (light biomass) up to 20 mn (rubber, plastic).
What are the ratio of solid, liquid and gas?
Solid phase ratio depends on waste and operating conditions. The following table gives a general idea.

Solid (coke, biochar) Liquid (Crude oil, biooil) Gas
Wood or crops residue
(based on 10% moisture)
35 – 80% Up to 60% Up to 20%
Plastic 5-30% Up to 50% Up to 80% (gasification)
Tyre 40% Up to 40% 20%
What is the efficiency of the Biogreen?
Efficiency is given by the ratio: CV (Calorific Value) of the final product / (CV of feedstock + external energy). Global efficiency of Biogreen is up to 85%.
What is the external energy and what is the consumption?
The external energy provided by Biogreen is electricity. Biogreen technology is based on an electrical heating screw which directly heats the product until an exothermal condition exists where the system begins to work under auto-pyrolysis condition. During auto-pyrolysis, a small portion of the gas (corresponding to approx 3 to 7% of the inlet product CV) is burning with a small amount of oxygen inside the pyrolyzer. The ability to regulate the electrical heating screw temperature guaranties the operating temperature to obtain a good quality final product (solid, liquid or phase).
Generally speaking, electrical consumption is between 50 to 200 kWh/ton of inlet product which represents 1% to 5% of the energy content into the feedstock (CV).
What are the limitations of Biogreen process?
Limitations are:

  • Rheological (flow characteristics) properties of the feedstock. The product must be transportable by a screw conveyor without a sticking problem.
  • Inlet moisture must be as low as possible. A good quality oil will need a low moisture content feedstock (< 8%)
  • Particle size into the Biogreen must be less than 20 mm
  • Due to current standards, maximum capacity for Biogreen is 7,5 m3/h
What is the footprint of a Biogreen installation?
Depending of the model, Biogreen footprint is 15 m X 5m X H 3m for a 7,5 m3/h plant
What is include in a Biogreen standard configuration?
Standard configuration of Biogreen includes:

  • Hopper for feedstock storage (approx 20 mn of production)
  • Rotary valves before and after the pyrolyzer to confine atmosphere of the pyrolyzer (less than 6% Oxygen)
  • Pyrolyzer with electrical heating screw technology
  • Cooler for solid phase with a double jacketed auger with circulation of chilled water and water spraying system
  • Condensor for the exhaust gas (condensation of oil and water phase)
  • Fan for exhaust non condensable gas to treatment system (treatment system not include)
  • Transformer, electrical cabinet and control panel with PLC
What Standard configuration of Biogreen do not include?
Standard configuration of Biogreen does not include but can be quote as option:

  • Dryer for the feedstock(available upon demand)
  • Grinder for the feedstock
  • Gas cleaning system
  • Gas burner for gas combustion when gas is valorize into heat
  • Gas Engine for gas treatment when gas is valorized for production of electricity
  • All final gas treatment must be size and design accordingly to local compliances and regulations.
What is the experience of Biogreen with biomass and waste ?
Biogreen’s vast experience covers : Wood residue (chips and sawdust), Crop residue (straw), animal manure (chicken and pig), sewage sludge, industrial sludge, plastic foil, plastic from car fluff, plastic from MSW, used tires, hospital waste,…
How can I test Biogreen with my own waste ?
The Biogreen process can be tested in Europe (ETIA, Compiegne, France www.etia.fr) or in USA (BNW, Tippecanoe, IN, USA www.beltomatic.com). Both companies have a Biogreen bench type and will be happy to make test on your own products.